Afstyla, Kovaltry, Idelvion, Opdivo (FDA APPROVED DRUGS) HEMATOLOGY

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Afstyla (antihemophilic factor)

Afstyla is an FDA approved drug, approved in may 2016. It is mainly used to treat hemophilia A (congenital factor 8 deficiency).

Information about Afstyla:

It is supplied in the form of powder, and solvent for reconstitution for intravenous injection. See the drug label for the dosing schedule.

Afstyla Side effects:

Adverse effects associated with the use of this drug is

  • Hypersensitivity
  • Dizziness

Mechanism of action ofAfstyla:

Afstyla is a protein. That replaces the missing coagulation factor 8 when needed for effective hemostasis. It is a single polypeptide chain with the B-domain that allows for the covalent bridge to link the factor 8 heavy and light chains.

 

Idelvion (coagulation factor nine, albumin fusion protein)

it is an FDA approved drug, approved on march 2016.

Information about Idelvion:

It is long acting albumin fusing protein linking to the recombinant coagulation factor with recombinant albumin. It is supplied in the form of powder for solution for intravenous use after reconstitution only.

Idelvion Side effects:

The most common side effects associated with this drug is a headache.

Mechanism of action ofIdelvion:

It is a recombinant protein that temporarily replaces the missing coagulation factor 9 and fusion with recombinant albumin extends the half-life of factor 9.

 

Kovaltry (antihemophilic factor)

it is an FDA approved drug, approved in march 2016.

Information about kovaltry:

It is recombinant human DNA sequence derived, full-length factor VIII and that is needed for the effective hemostasis. It is specifically intended for the usage of the hemophilia A in adults and children.

It is supplied in the form of solution for intravenous use after reconstitution only.

The recommended doses are as follows:

Control of bleeding episodes:

  • Required dose (IU): body weight (kg) X desired factor VIII rise (% of normal or UI/UL) x reciprocal of expected /observed recovery (e.g.,o.5 for the recovery of 2IU/dL per IU/dL.
  • Routine prophylaxis:

Adults and adolescents: 20-40IU/kg 2 or 3times per week

Kovaltry Side effects:

Adverse effects associated with this drug is

  • Pyurexia
  • Pruritus
  • Headache

Mechanism of action:

It is recombinant human DNA sequence derived, full-length factor VIII and that is needed for the effective hemostasis.

 

Opdivo (nivolumab)

it is an FDA approved drug , approved in may 2016.

Information about Opdivo:

It mainly targets the cellular pathway known as PD-1/PD-L1, proteins found in the body’s immune system and cancer cells.

By the blocking this pathway, opdivo may help the body’s immune system and fight cancer cells. This treatment is mainly for the patients with Hodgkin lymphoma that has hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and post-transplantation brentuximab vedotin.

This drug is mainly supplied as a solution for intravenous administration. The recommended dose is 3mg/kg administered as an intravenous infusion over 60min for every 2 weeks.

Opdivo Side effects:

Adverse effects associated with this drug are

  • Cough
  • Pyrexia
  • Diarrhea
  • Rash
  • Pruritus
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Headache
  • Arthralgia
  • Dyspnea
  • Infusion-related disorders

Mechanism of action:

Binding of PD-1 ligands, PD-L1, and PD L2 to the PD receptor found on T-cells. Nivolumab is a human immunoglobin G4 monoclonal antibody that binds to the PD-1 receptor and blocks its interaction with PD –L1 and PD-L2 releasing PD-1 pathway-mediated inhibition of the immune response, including the anti-tumor immune response.

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