Bipolar disorder is a mental illness which include depression as well as the periods of elevated mood. The elevated mood is also known as “mania”. During the time of mania the individual behaves or feels abnormally energetic and happy. In this period individual makes poor choices regardless of the consequences. The need of sleep is reduced during the times of mania. In the periods of depression the individual may crying and having negative thoughts on life, and also poor eye contact with the surrounding people. The suicidal are increased during this phase ,while self harm occurs is about 20-30 percent.
The main causes of this disorder are not clearly known,but the both environmental as well as genetic factors play a prominent role. Several environmental factors include history of childhood abuse and the long term stress.
About 3 percent of people in us are estimated to have this disorder at same point in the life .lower rates of around 1 percent are found in other countries
The most common at the symptoms of this disorder begins is at 25. These rates appear to be similar in the both male and females. The economic cost of this is estimated at 45 billion us dollars In the united states 1991.people with this disorder can face many problems socially.
This disorder can be present even when the mood swing are less extreme. For example, some people with this disorder experience less severe form of mania ,during this phase an individual feel very good. He will highly productive , and function well. The person May not feel anything wrong.but the family and the friends feel mood swingings and the changes in activity levels as proper. Without treatment ,people with disease suffer severe form of mania and depression .
Types of bipolar disorders:
bipolar disorder type-1 :It Mainly include maniac episodes that lasts atleast for 5-7 days and several maniac symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. Usually, depressive episodes as well, typically lasting for atleast 3 weeks .depression with the mixed features (having depression and maniac symptoms at the same time) are also possible.
bipolar disorder type-2: these type include, pattern of depressive episodes and the maniac episodes but not severe in this case.
Cyclothymic disorder: it consist of numerous periods of hypomaniac symptoms as well numerous periods of depressive symptoms lasting for atleast 2 years .however the symptoms does not meet the diagnostic requirements for hypomaniac and depressive episodes
Other specified or unspecified bipolar and related disorders: symptoms of these does not match with the symptoms of above categories.
bipolar disorder symptoms:
Mania is the main feature of this disorder and can occur with the different levels of severity. With low levels of mania known as hypomania. Individuals appear energetic, excited and may be highly productive as the mania worsens individual begins to exhibit the irratic and impulsive behavior and make the poor decisions due to unrealistic ideas about the future and sleep is very little, at most severe level maniac individuals can experience very disorted beliefs about the world is known as psychosis.as the depressive episode commonly follows an episode of mania. The biological mechanism is responsible for the switching from mania to depression and vice versa.
Sometime the people experience mode episodes include symptoms of both maniac and depressive. this is called the episode with the mixed features. People experiencing an episode with mixed features may feel very sad,empty,or hopeless. While at the same time feeling extremely energized.
bipolar disorder Maniac episodes:
Mania is a period of atleast one week of elevated and irritable mood which can take form of euphoria (a sense of being well). And exhibit three more of the following behaviors. speak in rapid, uninterruptable manner are easily distracted, have race thoughts, and increase in goal related activities .high risk such as hypersexuality and hyper spending money .
People with mania may also experience a decreased need for sleep, speak excessively in addition to speaking rapidly they may have impaired judgement. Maniac people have the issues with the substances abuse due to the combination of thrill-seeking and poor judgement.at and extreme level of maniac the person experience psychosis. they may feel out of control or unstoppable as if they have choosen and are on a special misson, or have a delusional ideas .
Hypomania is the low level form of mania ,same criteria of mania, but does not cause decrease in the individuals ability to socialize or work. Hypomanic episodes rarely progress to true maniac episodes .some hypomanic patients show increased creativity.or others may experience poor judgement.
Hypomania may feel good to the person who experience it thus but the family and friends recognize mood swings
Signs and symptoms of a depressive phase of this disorder include feelings of sadness, anxiety,guilt,anger,isolation, or hopelessness. Disturbances in sleep and appetite,fatigue,and loss of interest in usual enjoyable activities.
A major depressive episodes consist of at least two weeks, if left untreated.
Mixed effective episodes :
It is a condition during which symptoms of both mania and depression occurs at the same time. Individuals experiencing a mixed state may have manic symptoms and as well as wild thoughts while the same time experiencing depressive symptoms such as excess guilt and suicidal thoughts. Anxiety disorders occurs more frequently as in mixed bipolar episodesthen in non mixedbipolar depression or mania.
bipolar disorder Diagnosis:
Proper diagnosis and treatment help people with this disorder lead healthy and productive lives. Taking with a doctor or licensed mental health professional is the first step for anyone who thinks they have this disorder. The doctor can examine the conditions, if the problem is not due to the other illness, the doctor may conduct a mental health evaluation or provide a trained mental health Professional, such as a psychiatrist, who is the experienced in diagnosing and treating bipolar disorder.
The diagnosis of this disorder takes several factors into account and consider the self reported experiences of the individuals, behavioral abnormalities reported by the family membres, friends ,coworkers and the observable signs of illness as assessed by a psychiatrist, nurse, social workers, clinical psychologist or other health care professional.
bipolar disorder Treatment:
Treatment helps many people, even very severe bipolar disorder can treated and controlled their moods swings and other symptoms. An effective treatment plan usually have combination of medication and psychotherapy .this is an life long illness. Episodes of mania and depression typically come back over time , between episodes. Many people with this disorder are free of mood changes but some people having lingering symptoms .long term and continues treatment helps to control these symptoms.
Different types of medication can control symptoms of this disorder. An individual may need to try several different medication before ones that work best.
Medication generally used to treat this disorder include :
- Mood stabilizers
- Atypical antipsychotics
Anyone taking a medication should:
Talk with a doctor or a pharmacist to understand the risk and the benefits of the medication .
When the combination with medication and psychotherapy also called talk therapy. It is an effective treatment for thisdisorder , these type of treatment include various procedures like:
- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Family focused therapy
- Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy
Other treatment options:
Ect can provide relief for people with this disorder who have not been able to recover eitherfrom other treatments. Ect may cause some short –term side effects including confusion,disorientation and memory loss.