crohn’s disease : causes, symptoms,diagnosis,treatment methods

Crohn’s disease Is a chronic or long lasting that causes inflammation irritation-or swelling in the gastrointestinal tract (git).mainly crohn’s disease  effects the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine . This disease can can effect any part of the git ,from the mouth to the anus. crohn’s disease is mainly belongs to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases(Ibd). This diseaseis similar to the ulcerative colitis ,but the effect on git are are different. crohn’s disease can also affect the entire thickness of  bowel wall while ulcerative colitis only involve with the colon. crohn’s disease begins gradually and can became worse over time.

Gastrointestinal tract :

It is a series of hallow organs joined in a long , twisting tube from the mouth to the anus.the body digests food using the movement of muscle in the GI tract along with the release of several hormones and enzymes.

The organs that make  gi tract are mouth,esophagus,stomach,small intestine,large intestine, which include appendix,cecum, colon and rectumand the anus. The largest part of git is large intestine, intestines are nothing but bowel’s.

crohn’s disease is mainly caused due to the combination of environmental ,immune  and bacterial factors in genetically more prone to that disease. Sometimes the body immune system itself attacks the git ,becausethis disease is an immune related disease or else auto immune disease. The exact problem with the immune system is not clear. But it may be attack while the immunodeficiency state . about half of the overall risk is related to genetics with more then 70 genes are found to be involved . tobacco smokers are more likely to be effected with This disease .diagnosis is mainly based on the appearance of bowel other symptoms include irritable bowel syndrome.

Crohn’s disease symptoms: 

crohn's disease

It can effect any part of git but the symptoms may vary from person to person ,the main symptoms include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Abdominal pain
  • Constipation

And the other symptoms also include :

  • Fever
  • Loss of apitite
  • Weight loss
  • Muscle weakness
  • Night sweat
  • Loss of normal menstrual cycle
  • Joint pains
  • Eye irritation
  • Skin colour changes to red
  • Anemia (less amount of red blood cells then normal)
  • Hands and legs became very thin, due to the lack of energy

 

The symptoms of the disease can shown,but the proper examination by the doctor can diagnose the disease

People suffering from This disease experience loss of appetite and may lose weight as a result. A feeling of low energy and muscle Fatigue are also most common among younger children,This disease can delay the growth and development of the body.

In the severe cases of This disease lead to tears (fissure) in the lining of the anus which may cause pain and bleeding especially during the bowel movement. inflammation is also seen.

Crohn’s disease causes:

Men and women are equally suffered from this disease,  while the disease can occur at any stage.This disease is prevalent among the small and young adults between the age of 15-35.

Diet and stress can increasethis disease but they do not cause this disease. Several research suggests that hereditry, genetics and environmental factors contribute the development of this disease.

The gi tract may contain Harmless bacteria many of which are involved digestion. The immune system usually attacks and kills the foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microorganisms , under the normal circumstances, the harmless bacteria which is protected from that attacks

This disease to run the families, so if you or close relative to have the disease, your family members have the more chances to develop the disease. the risk  greater with ulcerative colitis. The environment in which you live also appears to play an important role.This disease is more common in developed countries rather then undeveloped countries. In urban rather then rural and in northern then in southern climates.

The exact cause of this disease is unknown. Researches believe that these following factors having huge impact on developing the disease, those are follows:

  • Auto immune reactions
  • Genes
  • Environment

Auto immune reaction:

Scientists believe that one cause of the disease may be an auto immune reaction,when a persons  immune system attacks healthy cells by mistake . normally the immune system protects the body from the various foreign substances by identifying and destroying bacteria, viruses and other potentially harmful foreign substances, the immune system response causes the inflammation leading to symptoms.

 

Genes:

This disease sometimes runs the families, research has shown that people who having a parent or siblings with this disease may be more likely to develop the disease, researchers continued to study the link between genes and this disease.

Environment:

Some studies suggest that certain things in the environment may increase the chances of person getting This disease, although the over all chance is low

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Antibiotics
  • Oral contraceptives

May slightly increases the chances of developing This disease some people believe that eating certain foods, stress, or emotional distress casn cause This disease. Sometimes the stress of living with This disease persons worse the disease. Also some people can find  that certain foods can trigger or worsen the symptoms.

Crohn’s  disease Diagnosis:

A health care professional diagnoses This disease with the following :

Medical and family history:

Taking a medical and family history can help a health care provider diagnose This disease and understand the patient symptoms, by considering certain factors like

  • family history
  • symptoms
  • current and past medication
  • current medication

physical examination:

During the physical exam the health care provider has to check

  • abdominal swelling
  • Listening the sounds of abdomen using the stethoscope

 

Lab tests:

  • Blood test
  • Stool test
  • Upper gastrointestinal series
  • Computerized tomography scan
  • Intestinal endoscopy
  • Colonoscopy

 

Crohn’s disease treatment:

  • Medication
  • Bowel rest
  • Surgery

Which treatment a person needs depends on the severity of the disease and symptoms.each person This disease differently .so health care provider can adjust the treatment to improve the persons symptoms.

Medication:

  • Aminosalicylates
  • Corticosteroids
  • Immunomodulators
  • Biological therapies
  • Other medication

Aminosalicylates:are the medication which contains 5-aminosalicylic acid which helps to control inflammation  which includes

Balsalzide*

Mesalamine*

Olsalazamine*

Sulfasalazine*

Corticosteroids:

Budesonide*

Hydrocartisoane*

Methylprednisolone*

Prednisolone*

Side effects of this drugs are:

Acne

Loss of bone mass

High blood pressure

Mood swingings

Weight gain

Immunomodulators:

6-mercaptopurine or 6-mp*

Azathioprine*

Cyclosporine*

Methotrexate*

more disease conditions  click here

ulcerative colitis

 

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