A drug is a substance other than food, that when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed in the form of tablet, capsule, injection, pills, patches etc.., causes a physiological change in the body.Generally the drugs can be used to treat, cure, prevent, diagnose, decrease the frequency of disease and promote well- being. Traditionally the wre obtained from the medicinal plants but now it is from the organic synthesis.
The pharmaceutical drugs can be categorized into drug classes. A group of drugs share a similar chemical structure, or have a same mechanism of action, or the same mode of action or target the same illness or the related illnesses.
- Administration(the action of dispensing and applying) of drugs
All the drugs can be administered via number of routes and sometimes may be administered by the more then one route:
Bolus: it is the administration of the drug or medication which given to rise in the concentration of blood to an effective level.
Route of administration:
- Inhalation: (breathed into the lungs), as an aerosol( the combination of air and solution) or a dry powder
- Injection: as a solution, suspension or emulsion.
Intramuscular: it is used when the drug has be administered in small volumes,depending on the chemical properties of the drug.
Intravenous: this simply means that “within vein” intravenous thrapy is mainly used for the electrolyte imbalances, fluid replacement.for example dehydration etc..,
Intraperitoneal: peritoneal cavity covers most of the intra-abdominal organs, it is mainly used in diseases which are associated with abdomen.
Intraosseous: it is process injecting directly into a bone marrow, which provides entry into a systemic venous system.
Insufflation: supply into the nose
Orally: as a liquid or solid absorbed into the intestine
Rectally: as a suppository( it is a solid dosage form inserted directly in to a rectum, that is absorbed by the rectum or colon
Sublingually: diffusing into the blood through the tissue under the tongue.
Topically: usually as a cream or ointment, a drug administered in this manner may be given to act locally or systemically.
Vaginal: as a pessary, it is mainly used to treat vaginal infections.
A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure any symptom of an illness or medical condition. Dispensing of medication is mainly regulated by the government by the three categories:
“over the counter”(OTC) medication, these are the drugs which sold directly to a consumer without a prescription, from the healthcare professional as a prescribed medicines, which can be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
“behind the counter” medication, these drugs also can given to the consumer without any prescription letter, by the healthcare professional.
prescription only drugs:
“prescription only medicines” medicines , it is a pharmaceutical drug which legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed .