Drug : What is Drug ,Route of Administration,OTC,Prescription only

A drug is a substance other than food, that when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed in the form of tablet, capsule, injection, pills, patches etc.., causes a physiological change in the body.Generally the drugs can be used to treat, cure, prevent, diagnose, decrease the frequency of disease and promote well- being. Traditionally the wre obtained from the medicinal plants but  now it is from the organic synthesis.

The pharmaceutical drugs can be categorized into drug classes. A group of drugs share a similar chemical structure, or have a same mechanism of action, or the same mode of action or target the same illness or the related illnesses.

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  • Administration(the action of dispensing and applying) of drugs

All the drugs can be administered via number of routes and sometimes may be administered by the more then one route:

Bolus: it is the administration of the drug or medication which given to rise in the concentration of blood to an effective level.

Route of administration:

  • Inhalation: (breathed into the lungs), as an aerosol( the combination of air and solution) or a dry powder
  • Injection: as a solution, suspension or emulsion.

Intramuscular: it is used when the drug has be administered in small volumes,depending on the chemical properties of the drug.

Intravenous: this simply means that “within vein” intravenous thrapy is mainly used for the electrolyte imbalances, fluid replacement.for example dehydration etc..,

Intraperitoneal: peritoneal cavity covers most of the intra-abdominal organs, it is mainly used in diseases which are associated with abdomen.

Intraosseous: it is process injecting directly into a bone marrow, which provides entry into a systemic venous system.

Insufflation: supply into the nose

Orally: as a liquid or solid absorbed into the intestine

Rectally: as a suppository( it is a solid dosage form inserted directly in to a rectum, that is absorbed by the rectum or colon

Sublingually: diffusing into the blood through the tissue under the tongue.

Topically: usually as a cream or ointment, a drug administered in this manner may be given to act locally or systemically.

Vaginal: as a pessary, it is mainly used to treat vaginal infections.

 

A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure any symptom of an illness or medical condition. Dispensing of medication is mainly regulated by the government by the three categories:

OTC drug:

“over the counter”(OTC)  medication, these are the drugs which sold directly to a consumer without a prescription, from the healthcare professional as a prescribed medicines, which can be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.

“behind the counter” medication, these drugs also can given to the consumer without any prescription letter, by the healthcare professional.

prescription only drugs:

“prescription only medicines” medicines , it is a pharmaceutical drug which legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed .

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