What is Encephalomalacia ?
Encephalomalacia It is the softening of brain tissue after cerebral infarction, infection, craniocerebral trauma, cerebral ischemia, or injury. This term is used during pathologic inspection to describe cortical margins and decreased consistency of brain after infarction.
It is a softening of neurological tissue within a cystic cavity of the brain that is typically caused by an insufficient blood supply; it is typically caused by inflammation, injury, or infection. This type of injury that causes cystic encephalomalacia can diagnose by an MRI. The temporal and parietal brain lobes are the regions of cystic encephalomalacia when the cause is an obstruction of blood flow due to a severe hemorrhage, such as that experienced during a stroke.
It refers to the formation of multiple cystic of various sizes in the cerebral cortex of children and infants after injury, mostly perinatal hypoxic-ischemic events. Chronic sinusitis has become one of the most common diseases in otolaryngology. Many of patients can be treated successfully with medical therapy. Those who fail in medical therapy may be candidates go for endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). This procedure having complications and can have serious consequences. Serious complications of functional ESS are very rare, but cerebrospinal fluid leak, hemorrhage, meningitis, infection, or vision loss has been reported in a few cases.
The person with this condition may experience various mild to severe symptoms, due to the discontinuation of the functioning of the part of the brain. These symptoms include:
Head spinning (vertigo)
In some condition, this disease leads to a size variation in the brain which may trigger a change in the pliability of the brain.
The disorder generally occurs due to some head injury which can lead to bleeding or hemorrhage into the brain. The Cerebral Softening is mostly seen in areas with an abnormal accumulation of blood.
In certain cases, a certain part of the brain may undergo softening due to inadequate blood flow. The disturbance in the blood flow may result from:
- Some part of the brain dies due to a stroke, which causes the neurons to be substituted by scar tissue consisting of astrocytes. This scar tissue undergoes contractions and forms Encephalomalacia in the brain.
- Removal of tumors from the brain that has infested and destroyed surrounding tissues
- Swelling in the brain that interrupts cerebral blood flow
Encephalomalacia and Gliosis
These are two different conditions that affect the brain. Encephalomalacia is a softening of brain matter after a stroke or a severe head trauma and Gliosis is a disease that leads to the development of astrocytes (glial tissue).
There is no particular way to treat this disorder because it is not possible to make destroyed brain tissues start working again. Researchers are still going on trying to find out if it is possible to restore normal functions of the partially affected brain.
The treatment for this disease mainly consists of detecting the main cause behind the change in brain consistency. In some extreme cases, damaged brain substance may be removed by surgery. However, the brain consistency undergoes a considerable change due to the removal of the softened brain material. It is still unclear that changes in the functions of a brain can ever make the sensations return to normal again.
Experts are trying to find out the usefulness of stem cell therapy for treating this brain disorder.
This prognosis is not a good sign in infants born with Cerebral Softening. In some cases, it is not possible to save the affected child. A patient suffers from neurological deficit even if the doctor succeeds in treatment. Early diagnosis and management are important to keep Cerebral Softening in control. In many cases, it is not possible to cure it completely. It is a severe brain condition which can lead to serious brain damage and impair its functioning.
Adults with this disorder often have treated with proper treatment. In many cases, the surgical removal of the softened brain matter does not cause any serious problems.