Endometriosis is a disorder of uterus, endometrium which is grown outside of the uterus. This disease mainly involves ovaries, bowel, and the tissue linings.
In endometriosis, a displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as normally but thickens and bleed in each menstrual cycle, because this displaced tissue has no way to exit from the body, it becomes trapped. The surrounding the tissue is irritated eventually develops the scar tissue.
It can cause pain, sometimes severe pain especially during the time of periods. And also fertility may develop.
The main symptom of this disorder is a pain in pelvic region. And often associated with the menstrual periods. Women experience menstrual pain far worse the normal in the endometriosis.
- Painful periods (dysmenorrhea): pain in the pelvic region and cramping may before several days of the periods and also lower back pain and abdominal pain.
- Pain when intercourse: pain during sexual intercourse and after the intercourse is common with this disorder
- Pain and bowel movements or urination: this symptom is more likely to experience during the periods
- Excessive bleeding: the patient may experience heavy periods (menorrhagia) or bleeding between periods
- Infertility: the women who are suffering from this disorder can cause infertility
- Other symptoms: the patient may experience fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, bloating or nausea, mainly during the menstrual periods
The exact of this disorder is still unknown, but there are some causes likely to be causing this disorder, those follow:
- Retrograde menstruation:
In this, the menstrual blood containing the endometrial cells and they flows back to the fallopian tubes instead of going out of the body, and these cells can stick to the walls of the pelvic walls and grows and became thick and bleed when the course of each menstrual cycle.
- Embryonic cell growth:
The linings of the cells in the abdominal and pelvic cavity come from the embryonic cells when one or more small areas of abdominal linings turn into endometriosis can develop.
- Surgical scar implantation:
After the surgical operation, the endometrial cells may attach to the incisions and cause pain
- Immune system disorder:
There are chances that immune system may destroy the endometrial tissue that growing outside the uterus
- Ovarian cancer
Endometriosis can become more severe if it’s untreated. It has no cure but there are medical and surgical options available for the controlling of the symptoms
Medicines such as ibuprofen can be used, but it is not effective in all cases. Some of the medications include Danazol* medroxyprogesterone*
Some of the contraceptives decrease the fertility by the preventing the monthly growth and thickening of endometrial tissue.
These are the most frequently seen tumors of the female reproductive system. These are also called as uterine myomas, leiomyomas, fibromas. These are made of fibrous connective tissue and smooth muscle cells that develop in the uterus. It is estimated that 20-50% of the women of the reproductive age can have fibroids even they are not diagnosed.
The main cause is still unknown but it is believed that each tumor develops due to the aberrant muscle cell and they multiply rapidly by the influence of estrogen.
- Heavy or prolonged periods
- Pelvic pain
- Abnormal bleeding between menstrual pain
- Lower back pain
- Frequent urination
- A mass is located in the middle of the pelvis and which is felt by the physician
- Transvaginal ultrasound (ultrasonography)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Endometrial biopsy
- Blood test
Usually, fibroids may stop growing in women after the menopause. The heath care provider may suggest “watchful waiting” for the patient, and the various treatment
Treatment options include:
- Pain medication
The medicines such as ibuprofen can be used, but these are not effective in all cases.
- Hormonal therapy
Taking hormonal supplements can sometimes relieve pain.
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) agonists and antagonists
- Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera)*
- Conservative surgery
- Radial surgery