Epilepsy: Types, Symptoms, Causes, medication, surgery.

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Epilepsy is the group of neurological disorders, which consist of the seizures. There are different type’s epilepsy and seizures. the  drugs are prescribed to control seizures, and rarely surgery is necessary if medications are ineffective.

Types of epilepsy:

There are many types of seizures such as:

  • Generalized seizures:

All areas of the brain are involved in a generalized seizure. Sometimes these are referred to as grand mal seizures

*the person experiencing such a seizure may cry out loud or make some sound for several seconds to a minute and then have rhythmic movements slows before stopping.

* eyes are generally open

*the return to consciousness is gradual and the may be confused for quite some time

*loss of urine is common

*the person will frequently be confused after generalized seizures

  • partial or focal seizures:

The only part of the brain is involved, so only part of the body is affected. Depending on the part of the brain having abnormal electrical activity,

Symptoms may vary

  • if the areas of the brain are involved, symptoms might include strange sensation like a full feeling in the stomach or small repetitive movements such as picking at one’s clothes or smacking of the lips.

*sometimes with the person with a partial seizure appears dazed or confuse.

  • absence or petit mal seizures:

These are most common in childhood.

*impairment of consciousness is present, with the person often staring blankly.

*repetitive blinking or other small movements may be present.

*typically, these seizures are brief, lasting seconds. Some people may have many of these in a day.

what are the symptoms of epilepsy:

Mainly it is caused by abnormal activity in brain cells, seizures can affect any process your brain coordinates. Seizures signs and symptoms may include:

  • Temporary confusion
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs
  • Loss of consciousness or awareness
  • Psychic symptoms

Symptoms vary depending on the type of seizure. In most cases, a person with epilepsy will tend to have the same type of seizure each time , so the symptoms will be similar from episode to episode.

what Causes epilepsy:

This condition is due to various factors:

Genetic influence: researchers have linked some types of epilepsy to specific genes, though it’s estimated that up to 500 genes could be tied to the condition. For most people, genes are only part of the cause of epilepsy.

Certain genes may make a person more sensitive to an environmental condition that can cause seizures.

Head trauma: it is the result of a car accident or the traumatic injury can cause seizures.

Brain conditions: brain conditions that can cause damage to the brain, such as brain tumors or stroke, can cause epilepsy.

Infectious disease: infectious diseases, such as meningitis, AIDS, and viral encephalitis, can cause epilepsy.

Prenatal injury: before birth, babies are highly sensitive to brain damage that could be caused by several factors, such as an infection in the mother, poor nutrition or oxygen deficiency.

Developmental disorders: these can be associated with developmental disorders, such as autism and neurofibromatosis.

what are the Complications of Epilepsy:

  • Falling
  • Drowsing
  • Car accidents
  • Pregnancy complications
  • Emotional health issues

Treatment for epilepsy:

Most of the people with epilepsy can become seizure free by taking one anti-seizure medication, called anti-seizure medication. Others may be able to decrease the frequency and intensity of their seizures by taking a combination of medications. More than half of the children with epilepsy who aren’t experiencing epilepsy symptoms can eventually discontinue medication and live a seizure–free life.

Finding the right medication and dosage can be complex. Doctor will at first single doses with a low dosage and may increase the dose gradually until the seizures are well-controlled.

Anti-seizure medication can have some side effects like:

  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Weight gain
  • Loss of bone density
  • Skin rashes
  • Loss of coordination
  • Memory and thinking problem

More severe but rare side effects include:

  • Depression
  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior
  • Severe rash
  • Inflammation of certain organs

Surgery:

Epilepsy surgery:

Surgery is most commonly done when tests show that your seizures originate in small, well-defined areas of the brain that are not interfere with the vital functions such as speech, language, motor function, vision or hearing, in surgery, your doctor removes the area of your brain that’s causing the seizures.

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