inflammatory bowel disease :symptoms ,diagnosis,treatment

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The  term Inflammatory bowel disease describes a group of disorders in which the intestines are inflamed , there are two types of  IBS are ulcerative colitis and crohn’s disease , whereas   ulcerative colitis  is limited to the colon or large intestines, crohn’s disease can involve any part of gastrointestinal tract , from the mouth to anus, most commonly though it effects the small intestines or the colon or both.

inflammatory bowel disease

If you have the IBD it usually runs in two phases , when there is severe inflammation the disease is considered active and the person effects severe effects ,when there is a less or low inflammation the person usually is without symptoms and the disease is said to be remission

Inflammatory bowel disease symptoms:

As it is a chronic disease, a person with IBD will have sometimes severe symptoms and the sometimes the symptoms will diminishes or disappear. The symptoms ranging from the mild to severe is generally depend on the part of the instestinal tract is involved, they include

  • Bowel movements became looser and more urgent
  • Diarrhea by abdominal pain and blood in stools
  • Stool is generally bloody
  • Fever
  • Rectal pain
  • Weight loss
  • Malnutrition
  • Joint pains
  • Joint swellings
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Skin ulcers
  • Mouth sores
  • Iron deficiency anemias due to blood loss

Inflammatory bowel disease Causes:

IBD is a disease with unknown cause .some agent or a combination of agents bacteria ,viruses, antigens triggers the body immune system  to produce an inflammatory reactions in the intestinal tract ,it would be the tissues causes an autoimmune response . whatever the the cause it is the reaction continues and without the control and damages the intestinal wall leading to diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Complications associated with the IBD :

IBD can leads to the several serious complications in the intestines ,including:

  • Intestinal bleeding from the ulcers
  • Rupturing of the bowel
  • Narrowing and obstruction of bowel
  • Fistulae disease around the anus
  • Malnutrition

IBD especially ulcerative colitis may cause the risk of colon cancer , IBD can also effect the organs too ,for example, someone with IBD may have arthritis,  skin conditions, inflammation in the eye ,liver and kidney disorder or bone loss

Inflammatory bowel disease Diagnosis :

Diagnosis of this IBD is based on the symptoms various exams and tests:

  • Stool exam: stool sample is sent to laboratory where the sample is tested for the blood , viruses, bacteria
  • Complete blood count:a nurse can withdraw a little amount of blood and tested in the lab, an increase in the red blood count suggest that presence of inflammation and if a nurse can with dram a little amount of blood and tested in the lab, an increase in the red blood count suggest that presence of inflammation and if you are severe bleeding, the red blood count and haemoglobin is reduced.
  • Other blood tests: electrolytes and the proteins are the makers of the inflammation such as erythrocyte sediment rate can be tested
  • Other radiologic tests, computed tomography (ct scan) , magnetic resonance imaging (mri) and ultrasound are also used for the daignosis of IBD
  • Colonoscopy
  • Upper endoscopy
  • Capsule endoscopy

 

Inflammatory bowel disease Treatment :

Treatment of IBD involves a combination of self care and medical treatment:

Self care:

Although there is no specific diet  has been shown to prevent IBD, dietary changes may be helpful in the managaing the symptoms ,depending on the symptoms the docter may suggest you to reduce the amount of fibre or dairy product that you consume, also small frequent meal may be better tolerated

Medical treatment:

The goal of the medical treatment is to suppress the abnormal inflammatory responses so that intestinal tissue has to be healed , as it does the symptoms of the diarrhea are redused once the symptoms are under control ,medical treatment will focus on the frequency and maintaining remission.

These are the types of medication that include:

Sulfasalazine*

Mesalamine*

Balsalazide*

Olsalazine*

More serious cases corticosteroids may used.

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