measles:symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complication, prevention.

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Measles, also called rubella, is a viral infection of the respiratory system. It is a very contagious disease that can spread that can spread through contact with infected mucus and saliva. The coughing and sneezing of an infected person can release the virus into the air. The virus can live on surfaces for several hours. As the infected particles enter the air and settle on the surfaces, anyone within close time can become infected with the measles virus. Drinking from an infected person’s glass or sharing eating utensils with an infected person increases your risk of infection. It is the leading cause of the death in children. Most of the victims are under the age of 5 yrs.

Generally, this infection is caused by a virus; there is no specific medical treatment for it. But the child who is sick can drink plenty of water and fluids, get lots of rest, and are kept from spreading the infection to others.  The number of this disease significantly dropped in recent year due to immunization. However disease not has been completely eliminated, in fact there were 222 cases of measles in 2011, according to the centers for disease control and prevention.

Primarily measles occurs in un-vaccinated children. Some parents choose not to vaccinate their children for the fear that vaccines will have adverse effects on their children. Most children and adults who receive a vaccine do not experience side effects. But in rare cases the vaccines are linked to the seizures, deafness, brain damage, and coma. Some parents believe that vaccine of this disease can have adverse effects like autism in children. However numerous studies have yet to a find a link between autism and immunization.

A vitamin A deficiency is also factor for measles. Children with too little vitamin A in their diets have a higher risk of catching the virus.

Measles Symptoms:

Symptoms of this disease generally appear within 14 days of exposure to the virus.

Symptoms include:

  • Cough
  • Fever
  • Red eyes
  • Light sensitivity
  • Muscle aches
  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • White spots inside the mouth

A widespread skin rash is classic sign measles. This rash can last up to seven days and generally appears within the first three or five days of exposure to the virus. A rash can commonly develops at the head and slowly spreads to other parts include red, itchy bumps.

Measles Diagnosis:

The doctor can confirm measles by examining a skin rash and checking for symptoms that are characteristic of the disease, such as white spots in the mouth, fever, cough, and sore throat. If unable to confirm a diagnosis based on observation, your doctor may order a blood test to check the virus.

Measles Treatment:

There is no prescription medication to treat this disease. The virus and symptoms can disappear in two to three weeks. However your doctor may recommend:

Acetaminophen* to relieve fever and muscle ache

Rest to help boost your immune system

Plenty of fluids intake

Humidifier to ease a cough and sore throat

Vitamin A supplement

 

Measles Complications:

Complications associated with this disease, it’s important to receive vaccine because this disease can lead to life-threatening complications, such as pneumonia and encephalitis

Other complications:

  • Ear infection
  • Bronchitis
  • Miscarriage or pre-term labor
  • Decrease in platelets
  • Blindness
  • Severe diarrhea

Measles Prevention:

Immunization can help prevent measles. The MMR vaccine is a three-in-vaccination that can protect you and your children from the measles, mumps, and rubella. Children can receive their first MMR vaccination 12 months and their second dose between the ages of 4 and 6. Adults who have never received an immunization can request the vaccine from their doctor.

If you or a family member contracts the measles virus, limit interactions with others. This includes staying home from school or work and avoiding social activities.

German measles:

Rubella is commonly known as German measles or 3 days measles it is an infection that mostly affects the skin and lymph nodes. It is caused by the rubella virus (not the same virus that causes measles)

It’s generally a mild disease in children, the primary medical danger of rubella is the infection of pregnant woman because it can cause congenital rubella syndrome in developing babies.

Symptoms:

Fever (99-100 degrees)

Swollen tender lymph nodes

Rashes

Mumps:

These are the contagious disease caused by a virus that passes from one person to another through saliva, nasal, secretions, and personal contact.

Symptoms:

Many people do not develop symptoms when they became infected with the mumps virus, so they may never know they had the infection.

Mumps are highly contagious viral infection with an incubation period of 14-18 days from exposure to onset of symptoms. The duration of this disease is 10 days.

The initial symptoms of mumps infection are non-specific low-grade fever, malaise, headache, muscle ache, and loss of appetite.

The MMR vaccine provides 80% effective immunity against mumps following a two dosage schedule,

There is no specific therapy exist for mumps. Warm or cold packs for the paratoid gland, tenderness, swelling is helpful, pain relievers (acetaminophen and ibuprofen) are helpful.

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