Meningitis: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

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Meningitis is a swelling of protective layers which covers the brain and spinal cord is known as meninges. This swelling is mainly caused by the infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. This disease is mainly occurred by the bacteria or viruses, but can also due to the injury, cancer, or certain drugs. It is important to know the cause of this disease the treatment is based on the cause.

Meningococcal or Bacterial meningitis:

It is the very severe illness that needs immediate medical care. If it is not treated quickly it can lead to the death of a person within hours or else permanent damage to the brain and other parts of the body. This is mainly caused by any one of several bacteria, but the most bacteria which this causing this disease in children and adults in the US is Neisseria meningitides ( meningococcus), streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus), in older patients with decreased immunity , listeria monocyte genes. Hae  mopilus influenza type b (Hib) was a very common cause of this disease in infants and young children until the Hib vaccines were introduced for infants. Vaccines are available for both Neisseria meningitides and streptococcus pneumonia. The bacteria can spread from person to person through coughing and sneeze.

Symptoms:

  • Severe headache
  • Discomfort
  • Nausea(vomiting sensation) or vomiting
  • Confusion
  • Mental changes
  • Joint pains

Treatment:

your doctor may recommend either in combination or else with one antibiotic is prescribed.

Spinal meningitis:

The most common cause of this disease is viral infections, which will be cured after the treatment.

Symptoms:

  • Light sensitivity
  • Fatigue (muscle weakness)
  • Fever
  • Severe pain in spinal cord
  • Sweating
  • Weight loss

Types of spinal meningitis include:

  • Meningitis- Cryptococci
  • Syphilitic Meningitis
  • Meningitis-h-influenza

This type of infection is developed in the late summers; it affects children and adults under the age -30, in children under the age of-5.

Meningococcal Meningitis:

It is very rare but serious infection, it can cause great harm without correct treatment

Viral meningitis:

This is more common than the bacterial; it can be caused by a number of viruses. People with this disease are fewer chances to have a permanent brain damage. After the treatment, most of the people will recover completely

Meningitis Treatment:

Bed rest

Plenty of fluids

Over the counter pain medication

Corticosteroids

Anticonvulsants

Fungal meningitis:

This is very common than other two types of infections. This is mainly caused due to the low immunity; the persons who infected with AIDS can cause this disease very commonly.

Meningitis Treatment:

Anti-fungal drugs

Antibiotics

Corticosteroids

Meningitis in children:

The symptoms in the child and infants are not fully known, due to their inability to communicate symptoms. For that reason, caretakers must pay attention to the infant’s condition

In children, symptoms include:

  • Blank expressions
  • Severe crying
  • Fever with cold hands and feet
  • Jaundice (yellow skin color)
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures
  • coma

In adults:

The reason for this disease in adults is several infections due to the viral, fungal, and bacterial, if not treated, the person may have permanent brain dysfunction and sometimes cause death, if treated, the conditions be resolved.

Symptoms:

  • Sudden high fever
  • Severe headache
  • Discomfort
  • Nausea(vomiting sensation) or vomiting
  • Confusion
  • Mental changes
  • Joint pains

Meningitis B or Men B vaccine:

These vaccines only prevent the disease, since the first vaccine was introduced in the year 1992, by this vaccines, the disease has been reduced , thousands of children of different countries  are alive today is because this vaccine, usually the vaccine is licensed to be given to 2-5months olds, 3doses in infants, but it is considered that only 2 primary doses are required, based on evidence from clinical trials.

A Men B is free of charge to people who have the higher risk of getting meningococcal disease. These vaccines are also offered to the laboratory workers who are at higher risk of getting this disease

Is it meningitis contagious?

Yes, it is contagious , prolonged close contact can spread this disease,  this bacteria can also spread through kissing, coughs, sneezes, sharing items like toothbrushes or cigarettes.

Meningitis shot:

The shot nothing but a vaccine, which is needed when the symptoms of this disease appear in the body, early immunization is much better then compared to the post meningitis shot.

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