Psoriasis is a skin condition that produces plaques of thickened, scaling skin. The dry flakes of the skin of are due to the excessive proliferation (division) of skin cells triggered by skin chemicals produced by the white blood cells are called “lymphocytes”. This disease commonly affects the skin on the elbows, knees, and scalp. Some people have mild, limited one that they may not even suspect that they have that disease. But the others have the very severity of this disease that affects the entire body surface.
This disease is considered as the incurable, long-term condition. This disease affects all the races and the both genders male and female, it is also seen in people of any age from babies to seniors, and commonly it can be it can be first diagnosed in early adulthood. The quality of the life is diminished due to the presence of this disease in their body. Latest survey says that people with this disease can also more prone to the disease like diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases.
Individuals with this disease may experience significant physical discomfort and some disability. Itching and pain can interfere with the basic functions such as the self –care, walking and sleep. Plaques on the hands and feet can prevent individuals from working at certain occupations, playing some sports, and caring for family members, the cost of medical care is costly. People with moderate to severe psoriasis may feel self- conscious about their condition and have a poor image about their appearance and have poor self –image that leads to the fear of public rejection and physiological stress leads to the depression and social isolation.
Types of psoriasis:
It is found on the scalp are seen in the fingernails of a child with this disease. Psoriasis Vulgaris is the medical name of the most common type (“Vulgaris” is common). About 80% of the people with this disease have this type. It is called as plaque psoriasis because of the characteristic plaques on the skin. The common locations this include knees, elbow, scalp, trunk, and nails. Mainly it is composed of dead skin. Symptoms are pain and itching.
This is the type of psoriasis look like small, salmon-pink drops on the skin the word Guttate is derived from the Latin word Gutta means drop. Usually, it is a fine scale on the drop like lesion that is much finer then scales in plaque. The trigger of this disease is a streptococcal (bacterial) infection.
Bright red smooth patches found in the folds of the skin. The most common areas are breast, armpits, near the genitals, under the buttocks, abdominal folds. These irritated and inflamed areas are aggravated by the sweat and skin rubbing, the yeast overgrowth may trigger the lesions of this disease.
These an uncommon form , people with pustular psoriasis has clear defined raised bumps on the skin that are filled with the pus. The skin under the pus is reddish.
This is the least common type of psoriasis and can be quite serious too. A very large area of the body, if not most of the body is bright red and inflamed. The body can appear to be covered in a peeling reddish rash. The rash usually itches and burns.
what are the Psoriasis symptoms:
This disease appears as red or pink small scaly bumps that merge into a plaque of raised skin. It classically affects the skin over the elbows, knees, and scalp. Although any area may be involved, it tends to be more common at sites of friction, scratching.
There is a special diagnostic sign in this disease called Auspitz sign, in which the fingers and toenails have small pits (pinpoint depressions) and a larger yellowish- brown separations of the nail from the nail bed at the fingertip called finger onycholysis. Nail psoriasis may be confused with and incorrectly diagnosed as a fungal nail, and other symptoms include bumps, plaques, scaling skin that may be present over large parts of the skin surface, genital lesions, it is common in the most areas like the navel or the area between the buttocks may look like flat red patches without much scaling. This may be confused with the other skin conditions like fungal infections, yeast infections, skin irritation, and bacterial infection. Scalp psoriasis may look like severe dandruff with dry flakes and red areas of skin; it can be difficult to differentiate between the scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. However, treatment is similar for both conditions.
The exact cause remains unknown. A combination of elements, including genetic and environmental factors may be involved. It is found in same members in the family. Defects in immunity can play a major role. Despite, this disease is still a mystery.
This disease can be diagnosed by the obtaining information from the physical examination of the skin, medical history, and relevant family history. Sometimes the lab tests include a microscopic examination of a skin biopsy (cutting small tissue of the skin).
There are many effective treatments available for this disease. The best treatment is individually determined by the treating physicians and depends on , in any part of the disease, the severity, and the amount of skin involved.
Creams, lotions, and sprays may available and are safe to use. Occasionally la local injection of steroids directly into a tough and isolated plaque may be helpful.
For moderate to severe types, topical products may not be effective. This may require ultraviolet light treatments or systemic medication. It is important to keep in mind that as with any medical condition all the medications carry possible side effects. No medication is 100% effective for everyone. Various steroidal therapies and the different therapy include
Vitamin D analogs: calcitriol*
Topical retinoids : tazarotene*
Topical immunomodulators : tacrolimus*
Topical corticosteroids : hydrocortisone*
Calcitriol creams like Rocaltrol*, talconex*,
Oral medication: methotrexate*, acitretin*, cyclosporine*, apremilast*, prednisone*