Pulmonary capillaritis is an inflammatory condition that causes the destruction of the tiny blood vessels that surround the air sacs, known as capillaries. The inflammation is mainly associated with an increased number of neutrophils in the capillary walls and surrounding tissue and cause the death of the cells in the capillary walls.
The symptoms of this condition are acute but are slow in developing. The children experience exercise limitations, anemic, and have shortness of breath and various other symptoms include a cough, low oxygen levels in the blood, and abnormal chest x-rays. Children will cough blood, but this is not always observed because some children swallow the secretions.
A CT scan is more tests that show patchy opacities due to the blood filling in the air sacs. If the condition is chronic, septal thickening and nodular opacities can be seen. Chest x-rays will show a butterfly of symmetric airspace opacities (lighter in the lung image) in most of the cases of alveolar hemorrhage, but some will have the opacities on one side. It can indicate capillaritis if the small fluffy opacities are seen in the middle of the lobes of blood vessels. Sometimes a biopsy is used to confirm the diagnosis.
Sometimes capillaritis is associated with other vascular disorders including, microscopic polyangiitis, and Goodpasture’s disease.
The cause of capillaritis could be the leakage of the small blood vessels which are also called capillaries; in many cases causes are unknown. But when there is a leakage of blood and the capillaries become inflamed when the blood passes through the little gaps between the cells are making up by the capillary wall and there are several other factors that can cause capillaritis such as:
Allergies to certain foods
Using medication like NSAIDS.
Skin hypersensitivity reaction.
Standing for a long period
Inflammation of the superficial capillaries
Heavy exercises can cause capillaritis, mainly in your lower legs, ankles
Some types of capillaritis can become worse after doing severe activity
Treating capillaritis is not important because it will eventually go away on its own. By taking healthy diet and using topical steroidal creams helpful. Before starting any treatment you should consult with your dermatologist. However, there is no cure for this disease that is known at this time. Some of the symptoms are associated with capillaritis that may be managed by using prescription or over-the-counter medications. If is causing itchiness, you could apply steroidal ointments to control this problem but it will not short the course of the capillaritis outbreak. Since it normally affects the legs, especially the lower portion, wearing compression stocking may help with some of the symptoms you are experiencing. If the outbreak is caused due to food sensitivity and allergies you need to start an elimination of the diet which is causing the breakouts.
If is a prescribed medication is main cause, your physician may suggest stopping the medication temporarily to see if the outbreak will be controlled.
Pulmonary capillaritis must be treated. If it is left untreated, the inflammation causes damage and whole fibrosis of the lung tissue and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The goal of the treatment is to treat the symptoms. Current therapy includes a high dose of corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and IV immunoglobulin. Once remission is obtained, it is maintained with low-dose prednisone and azathioprine, methotrexate, which will suppress the immune system.