ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It comprises of a group of diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract. It occurs mainly to the lining of a large intestine and the rectum became swollen. This is produced by the tiny sores of “ulcers”. It usually begins at rectum and spreads upwards. The inflammation causes the bowel empty early then normal. As the cells on the surface of the rectum die, ulcer forms. The ulcer may cause bleeding and discharge of mucus and pus.
This disease is the result of an abnormal response of your body immune system. Normally the cells and proteins which make up the immune system will protect you from the infections. In the people suffering from IBD , the immune system mistakes consider the food, bacteria and other materials in the intestine as the foreign substances, when this happens the body sends white blood cells into the lining of intestines, where they produce chronic inflammation and ulceration.
It is important to understand the difference between this disease and the crohn’s disease. Crohn’s disease can affect any part of gastro intestinal tract but this disease can affect only the colon.
This disease may affect the people of all ages, symptoms can develop when people are between the ages of 15-30 or between the ages of 50-70. The cause of this condition is unknown .researches no longer believe stress is the only cause . researchs going on the immune system and heredity for possible causes .
Most of the people with this disease don’t have a family history of the condition , however, you are more prone to develop a This disease if a close family member
ulcerative colitis symptoms:
About half of the people withthis disease can experience mild symptoms , be sure to consult your doctor if you experience the following symptoms:
- Bowel movements became looser and more urgent
- Diarrhea by abdominal pain and blood in stools
- Stool is generally bloody
- Rectal pain
- Weight loss
- Joint pains
- Joint swellings
- Skin ulcers
- Mouth sores
People will suffering from ulcerative colitis often experience loss of appetite and may lose weight as a result. A feeling o f a low energy and a muscle fatigue is also common in younger children,This disease may delay the growth and development .
Ulcerative colitis types:
In addition to this disease there are other several types are there as follows:
About 30% of all patients with this disease the illness begins with the Ulcerative proctitis , in this form bowel inflammation is limited to rectum .Ulcerative proctitis is having milder symptoms then compared to this disease, usually the Ulcerative proctitis is the starting stage of this disease
Colitis effect the rectum and the, sigmoiditis effect the colon. Symptoms include diarrhoea,a constant need to pass stool known as tenesmus. Moderate pain on the lower side of the abdomen
Left sided colitis:
Continuous inflammation that begins at the rectum and extends as far as a bend of colon, symptoms include diarrhea ,loss of appetite, weight loss, severe pain at the left side of the abdomen and bleeding.
It effects entire colon, symptoms include ,diarrhea, extensive abdominal pain,weight loss, massive bleeding, serious complications required surgery.
ulcerative colitis Causes :
The cause of this condition is unknown. Researchers no longer believe that stress is the cause. Today,research focuses on the immune system and heredity for possible causes. Foreign substances in the environment are the direct cause of the inflammation or they can stimulate the body defense mechanism produce an inflammation that continues without control.
ulcerative colitis complications:
This disease can increase the risk of colon cancer , several other complications include
- Thickening of the intestinal wall
- Sepsis(blood infection)
- Severe dehydration
- Intestinal bleeding
- Kidney stones
- Inflammation of skin
- Holes in the colon
ulcerative colitis Diagnosis:
Different tests can help your doctor to find this disease, tests to diagnose of this disease include:
- Stool test: doctor will examine the stool for blood ,bacteria,and parasites
- Endoscopy: doctor uses a flexible tube to examine your stomach, esophagus, and small intestines
- Colonoscopy: examining the colon.
- Biopsy: removing a tissue sample from the colon
ulcerative colitis treatment:
This disease is a life long condition in which usually involves drug therapy or surgery, the main goal is reduce the inflammation that causes the symptoms.
These are the types of medication that include:
More serious cases corticosteroids may used.
Surgical options include proctolectomy with ileostomy and the ileonal anastomosis
Proctolectomy with ileostomy is the removal entire colon and rectum. A surgeon will make an opning in the abdominal wall through which the tip of the lower intestine waste will drained into the opening into a bag.
In ileonal anastomosis ,a surgeon removes the diseased part of the colon but the outer muscle of the rectum remain same, after this sugery the patient is able to pass feces through the rectum , bowel movements are more frequent then normal.
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